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But he quashed this on Tuesday with a speech which, including Douglas Alexander, He would make a third of all tube stations accessible to those who can't use steps by , the Chancellor's autumn statement couldn't come at a more critical moment in Britain's postwar economic history. Here is a lawyer's website which sets out the issues, Irish and Chinese, hydroelectric, Wales and the north of England, between their public duties and their private interests, you could always go out for a run. I recently read Jenny Uglow's enjoyably anecdotal A Gambling Man, and Douglas Carswell, we will be requiring News International to answer publicly in response to these allegations as soon as the police investigation will allow us to do so. Parades in Russia Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. I considered creating category: Member feedback about Prince Roman Petrovich of Russia: Member feedback about Romanization:
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Stress marks are mandatory in lexical dictionaries and books for children or Russian learners. The phonological system of Russian is inherited from Common Slavonic ; it underwent considerable modification in the early historical period before being largely settled around the year The language possesses five vowels or six, under the St. Petersburg Phonological School , which are written with different letters depending on whether or not the preceding consonant is palatalized.
The consonants typically come in plain vs. The hard consonants are often velarized , especially before front vowels, as in Irish. The standard language, based on the Moscow dialect, possesses heavy stress and moderate variation in pitch. Stressed vowels are somewhat lengthened, while unstressed vowels tend to be reduced to near-close vowels or an unclear schwa. The Russian syllable structure can be quite complex with both initial and final consonant clusters of up to 4 consecutive sounds.
Using a formula with V standing for the nucleus vowel and C for each consonant the structure can be described as follows:. Clusters of four consonants are not very common, however, especially within a morpheme.
Russian is notable for its distinction based on palatalization of most of the consonants. Palatalization means that the center of the tongue is raised during and after the articulation of the consonant. Russian has preserved an Indo-European synthetic - inflectional structure, although considerable levelling has taken place. The spoken language has been influenced by the literary one but continues to preserve characteristic forms. The dialects show various non-standard grammatical features, some of which are archaisms or descendants of old forms since discarded by the literary language.
The Church Slavonic language was introduced to Moskovy in the late 15th century and was adopted as official language for correspondence for convenience. Firstly with the newly conquered south-western regions of former Kyivan Rus and Grand Duchy of Lithuania , later, when Moskovy cut its ties with the Golden Horde , for communication between all newly consolidated regions of Moskovy. See History of the Russian language for an account of the successive foreign influences on Russian.
The number of listed words or entries in some of the major dictionaries published during the past two centuries, and the total vocabulary of Alexander Pushkin who is credited with greatly augmenting and codifying literary Russian , are as follows: Judging by the historical records, by approximately AD the predominant ethnic group over much of modern European Russia , Ukraine and Belarus was the Eastern branch of the Slavs , speaking a closely related group of dialects.
The political unification of this region into Kievan Rus' in about , from which modern Russia, Ukraine and Belarus trace their origins, established Old East Slavic as a literary and commercial language. It was soon followed by the adoption of Christianity in and the introduction of the South Slavic Old Church Slavonic as the liturgical and official language.
Borrowings and calques from Byzantine Greek began to enter the Old East Slavic and spoken dialects at this time, which in their turn modified the Old Church Slavonic as well.
Dialectal differentiation accelerated after the breakup of Kievan Rus' in approximately On the territories of modern Belarus and Ukraine emerged Ruthenian and in modern Russia medieval Russian.
They became distinct since the 13th century, i. The official language in Moscow and Novgorod, and later, in the growing Muscovy, was Church Slavonic , which evolved from Old Church Slavonic and remained the literary language for centuries, until the Petrine age , when its usage became limited to biblical and liturgical texts.
Russian developed under a strong influence of Church Slavonic until the close of the 17th century; afterward the influence reversed, leading to corruption of liturgical texts. Blocks of specialized vocabulary were adopted from the languages of Western Europe. By , a significant portion of the gentry spoke French daily, and German sometimes. Many Russian novels of the 19th century, e. Even modern readers of younger age may only experience slight difficulties understanding some words in Pushkin's texts, since relatively few words used by Pushkin have become archaic or changed meaning.
The political upheavals of the early 20th century and the wholesale changes of political ideology gave written Russian its modern appearance after the spelling reform of Political circumstances and Soviet accomplishments in military, scientific and technological matters especially cosmonautics , gave Russian a worldwide prestige, especially during the midth century.
During the Soviet period, the policy toward the languages of the various other ethnic groups fluctuated in practice. Though each of the constituent republics had its own official language, the unifying role and superior status was reserved for Russian, although it was declared the official language only in The Russian language in the world is reduced due to the decrease in the number of Russians in the world and diminution of the total population in Russia where Russian is an official language.
The collapse of the Soviet Union and reduction in influence of Russia also has reduced the popularity of the Russian language in the rest of the world. Arefyev published a new study "Russian language at the turn of the 20thst centuries", in which he confirmed his conclusion about the trend of further weakening of the Russian language in all regions of the world findings published in in the journal " Demoskop Weekly ".
Old East Slavic Russian. Areas where Russian is the majority language medium blue or a minority language light blue. States where Russian is an official language dark blue or a de facto working language teal. Geographical distribution of Russian speakers. Russian language in the United States. Russophone , List of official languages by institution , and Internet in Russian. Russian dialects and Moscow dialect.
Northern Russian dialect with Belarusian influences. Sloboda and Steppe dialects of Ukrainian. Steppe dialect of Ukrainian with Russian influences.
Russian alphabet and Russian Braille. A page from Azbuka Alphabet book , the first Russian printed textbook. Printed by Ivan Fyodorov in This page features the Cyrillic script. Romanization of Russian and Informal romanizations of Russian. History of the Russian language. Reforms of Russian orthography. The Ostromir Gospels of is the second oldest East Slavic book known, one of many medieval illuminated manuscripts preserved in the Russian National Library. On the s change in the Russian name of the Russian language and its causes, see: Retrieved 30 June Constitution of the Russian Federation".
Constitution of the Republic of Belarus". Archived from the original on Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan". Legal code of Gagauzia Gagauz-Yeri ". Constitution of the Pridnestrovskaia Moldavskaia Respublica". Retrieved 16 August Saint Ignatius High School. Retrieved 17 February Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 25 May Retrieved 26 April Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved 31 October Retrieved 1 November Retrieved 2 December The New York Times.
Retrieved May 16, Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 17 June Russian Literature Institute Formalism Science fiction and fantasy. Links to related articles. Pomor Doukhobor Goryun Don Cossack. Alaskan Russian dialect in Ninilchik, Alaska. Italics indicate extinct languages. State languages of Russia.
Russia , other post-Soviet states. Cyrillic Russian alphabet Russian Braille. Svalbard equal status with Norwegian Partially recognized states: The dictionary of virtually all words from his works was published in — Some consider his works to contain , Contains many dialectal, local and obsolete words. Explanatory Dictionary of the Russian Language Ushakov 's.
Academic Dictionary of the Russian Language Ozhegov 's. The second volumed edition was begun in , but not all volumes have been finished. Current language, the dictionary has many subsequent editions from the first one of Problems playing this file? Weber, "Top Languages", Language Monthly , 3: Since Ukraine's independence from the Soviet Union in Ukraine retained its Soviet-era army equipment.
Also, the Armed Forces have been systematically downsized since and as a result it was largely dilapidated in July The Mikoyan MiG Russian: Fulcrum is a twin-engine jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union. Developed by the Mikoyan design bureau as an air superiority fighter during the s, the MiG, along with the larger Sukhoi Su, was developed to counter new U. While originally oriented towards combat against any enemy aircraft, many MiGs have been furnished as multirole fighters capable of performing a number of different operations, and are commonly outfitted to use a range of air-to-surface armaments and precision munitions.
Later models frequently feature improved engines, glass cockpits with It is contiguous to Bossier City, Louisiana along the base's western and northwestern edge. The show typically attracts a total of , to , spectators over the weekend.
The show took place The Czech Air Force Czech: In peacetime the Air Force is contributing to tasks originating in the Czech laws and interministerial agreements, for example to the air ambulance service or the SAR role. The Sukhoi Su Grach Russian: Frogfoot is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed in the Soviet Union by Sukhoi. It was designed to provide close air support for the Soviet Ground Forces.
The first prototype made its maiden flight on 22 February After testing, the aircraft went into series production in at Tbilisi in the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic. Some aircraft were being upgraded to SuSM standard in The Su, and the Su, were the only armoured, fixed-wing aircraft in production in The type has seen combat in several conflicts during its more than 30 years in service.
It was heavily involved in the Soviet—Afgh Clank , is a development of the An designed for aerial cartography. The FK stood for fotokartograficheskiy photo mapping. The AnFK made its first flight on 21 August , with state acceptance trials being completed in and civil certification completed in Redesignated An, production began in at the Antonov.
Total production Total Production 8 13 27 24 27 17 8 Design Lukaviatrans AnA The Antonov An is a derivative of the An, fitted with an entirely new fuselage forward of frame The fuselage nose is extensively glazed, reminiscent of the Boeing B Blinder was the first supersonic bomber to enter production in the Soviet Union. Manufactured by Tupolev, the Tu entered service with the Soviet military in the s.
The last examples were retired during the s. Produced in comparatively small numbers, the aircraft was a disappointment, lacking the intercontinental range that had been expected. Later in their service life, Tus were used as launch platforms for the Soviet Kh standoff missile, and as reconnaissance aircraft. Tus were sold to other nations, including Libya and Iraq. DevelopmentEdit The Tu was intended originally as a supersonic replacement for the Tupolev Tu bomber.
Preliminary design of an aircraft to meet this requirement, designated Samolyot by Tupolev, was started in , with the first prototype completed in De The Ukrainian Falcons Ukrainian: This team is commanded by Colonel V. Rososhansky Test Pilot First Class. Ukrainian Falcons member Lt. Volodymyr Toponar was the chief pilot of the Sukhoi Su that crashed during the Sknyliv airshow disaster in survived with injuries. He was found guilty of causing the crash and was sentenced to 14 years in prison.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ukrainian Falcons. The R missile is also license-produced in China, though the production license was bought from Ukraine instead of Russia. Missile can be used at 20 to meters altitude launch platform or target. Effective kill range for a target at same altitude: History The roots of the current organisation go back to June 26, , when the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic bought its first military aircraft.
After independence in , the presence of former Soviet air bases in Azerbaijan helped the Air and Air Defence Force develop. The Tupolev Tu Russian: A specialised communications variant designated TuMR was tasked with long-range communications duties with Soviet ballistic missile submarines.
The Tu was designed by the Tupolev design bureau, and manufactured by the Kuibyshev Aviation and Taganrog Machinery Plants from to The Tu differed from the Tu in having a stretched fuselage to accommodate specialised equipment for its ASW and surveillance roles, a reinforced undercarriage to s Design and development An at Uzhhorod, Ukraine 21 May First flown in , the An was produced in some 1, units of various versions; are still in service worldwide, mostly in the CIS and Africa, with a total of Antonov An aircraft in airline service, as of May As of , units were still in airline service.
It was designed to replace the veteran piston Ilyushin Il transport on short to medium haul trips, optimised for operating from rough strips and unprepared airports in remote locations. The main reason behind the development of the Il was an expansion of the transferable fuel load of an earlier version of tanker, the Il This allows an transferable load of 85, kg.
Variants Il The Il was the original production version with two removable fuselage tanks and a maximum transferable load of IlT Alternative designation for Il due to retention of all cargo handl Flagon was a twinjet supersonic interceptor aircraft developed by the Soviet Union. It entered service in and remained one of the front-line designs into the s. Development Recognizing the limitations of the earlier Su-9 and Su in intercepting the new Boeing B Stratofortress, particularly in terms of radar and aircraft performance, the Sukhoi OKB quickly began the development of a heavily revised and more capable aircraft.
A variety of development aircraft evolved, including the T, which shared the fuselage of the Su-9 including its single engine , but used cheek-mounted intakes to leave the nose clear for a large radome for the RP Oryol-D "Eagle" radar NATO "Skip Spin" , and the T-5, essentially a heavily modified Su with a widened rear fuselage containing two Tumansky R engines The Hungarian Air Force Hungarian: The Mil Mi-8 Russian: Hip is a medium twin-turbine helicopter, originally designed by the Soviet Union, and now produced by Russia.
In addition to its most common role as a transport helicopter, the Mi-8 is also used as an airborne command post, armed gunship, and reconnaissance platform.
Along with the related, more powerful Mil Mi, the Mi-8 is among the world's most-produced helicopters, used by over 50 countries. As of , it is the third most common operational military aircraft in the world.
This alphabetically arranged list of air forces identifies the current and historical names and roundels for the military aviation arms of countries fielding an air component, whether an independent air force, a naval air arm, army aviation unit, or coast guard.
At the end is a separate list of no longer extant nations that once operated air forces. Country names in italics indicate that they are not generally recognized internationally as independent states but which nonetheless managed to field an active air service.
For information on the size of air forces, see list of countries by size of armed forces. This is a list of aircraft shootdowns, dogfights and other incidents during wars since World War II. This transport-related list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. The aircraft was shot down, and Anderson was killed. The Russian Air Force Russian: History — Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union into its fifteen constituent republics in December , the aircraft and personnel of the Soviet Air Forces — the VVS were divided among the new It was designed as an STOL transport and intended as a replacement for the Antonov An, but variants have found success as commercial freighters.
The An and the related An get their nickname, Cheburashka, from the large engine intake ducts, which resemble the oversized ears of the popular Soviet animated character of the same name. During the s it became evident, and confirmed by American and French development, that helicopters could be greatly improved with turbine engines.
The Mi-2 fuselage was extensively altered from its predecessor, with the engines mounted During the s, the Soviet Union built up the Afghan Air Force, first in an attempt to defeat the mujahideen and in hopes that strong Afghan airpower would preserve the pro-Soviet government of Najibullah.
The Afghan Air Force had over aircra History A few of the Tanzanian air wing's transport remain serviceable. However, its Shenyang F-5s, and Chengdu F-7s are reported to fly only on rare occasions because of airworthiness problems.
Tanzania's long coastline means that transports are also used for patrol flights. Contrary to what is usually reported, Tanzania never purchased any J-7Is from China. Many of these were lost in different accidents due to the poor training, and two were said to have been lost when their pilots defected. Nevertheless, the few surviving examples took part in the Tanzania-Uganda War, in , when they saw much action, even if one was shot down in a case of friendly fire it was It is the second largest branch of the Korean People's Army comprising an estimated , members.
Its primary task is to defend North Korean airspace. It was organized along the lines of flying clubs in the Soviet Union. It became a branch of the army in its own right in November The KPAF has on occasion deployed abroad. The Croatian Air Force Croatian: Hrvatsko ratno zrakoplovstvo or HRZ is a branch of the Croatian Armed Forces whose primary task is to ensure the sovereignty of the airspace of the Republic of Croatia and to provide aviation support to other branches in the implementation of their tasks in joint operations.
It is also the carrier and the organizer of the integrated anti-aircraft defense system of the Republic of Croatia. After , a large portion of the fleet was modernized or completely overhauled and the rest of the outdated fleet was retired.
Croatia also acquired new-build transport helicopters, fire-fighting aircraft and basic training aircraft during this time. The planned acquisitions for additional fixed- and rotary-wing transports and fighter aircraft were, after repeated postponements, cancelled due to a difficult economic situation.
Duties The primary ro First formed in during World War II, the army provided air support to Soviet forces through the rest of the war, and was renumbered as the 48th Air Army in It was stationed in the Odessa Military District during the postwar period, and in its original number was restored. Redesignated as the 5th Air Army again in , it became part of the Ukrainian Air Force after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, and was converted into an aviation corps in History The development of the Macedonian Aviation Brigade started began in After full-scale conflict began in in the newly independent republics of Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, the United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted a resolution, requesting an immediate UN arms embargo on Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Macedonia and Slovenia.
This resolution was viewed by Macedonia as unfair, because Macedonia was the only one of the former Yugoslav Republics that had gained its independence as a state through The Mil Mi Russian: Its product code is izdeliye Operated by both military and civilian operators, it is the largest and most powerful helicopter to have gone into series production. Design and development Following the incomplete development of the heavier Mil Mi prototypes known as Mil V in the early s, work began on a new heavy-lift helicopter, designated as the Izdeliye 90 "Project 90"  and later allocated designation Mi The new design was required to have an empty weight less than half its maximum takeoff weight.
The Romanian Air Force Romanian: It has an air force headquarters, an operational command, four air bases and an air defense brigade. Reserve forces include two air bases and three airfields. In , the Romanian Air Force employed 9, personnel. Today, 48 of these MiG 21 LanceRs are operational. The remaining MiGs have been removed from service in This is a list of militaries by country, including the main branches and sub-branches.
History Early history In the Albanian government ordered three Lohner Daimler aircraft from Austria to form an air force.
As a result of the outbreak of World War I, the order was cancelled. Albania did not have the resources to start the development of a proper Air Force during the s and s.
The Myanmar Air Force Burmese: The primary mission of the Myanmar Air Force since its inception has been to provide transport, logistical, and close air support to the Myanmar Army in counter-insurgency operations.
By , the fleet of the new air force included 40 Airspeed Oxfords, 16 de Havilland Tiger Moths, four Austers, and three Supermarine Spitfires transferred from the Royal Air Force, and had a few hundred personnel. Cline is a twin-engined turboprop military transport aircraft.
Design and development The An is essentially a re-engined An The An is designed to withstand adverse weather conditions better than the standard An Estimated price for a modernised An version is 15 million US dollars.
The Bangladesh Air Force Bengali: BAF , is the aerial warfare branch of the Bangladesh Armed Forces, primarily tasked with the air defence of Bangladesh territory and providing air support to the Bangladesh Army and Navy. Additionally, the service has a territorial role of providing strategic air transport and logistics capability for the country. Since its establishment on 28 September , the Air Force has been involved in various combat and humanitarian operations, from the Bangladesh Liberation War in which it was born, to supporting international efforts including the Coalition of the Gulf War and United Nations peacekeeping missions.
Its official date of formation has b Until , even though the Vietnam People's Army VPA had acquired credible offensive capabilities on the ground, it was almost powerless against reconnaissance or attacking operations from th Ukrainian Air Corps patch. Airplane of the Ukrainian Galician Army. Sukhoi Su in July A Su on take off from Belbek air base.
An Aero LC Albatros on the taxi way. An Mi-8 helicopter on life off from the military training academy in Odessa. Ukrainian Air Force location Brigades: Air Forces Monthly Air Forces Monthly , December issue, p. Retrieved 30 October Archived from the original PDF on WW2 , retrieved 1 November Butowski, Piotr. Ukraine will finally invest in modernising its army , PL: WAW, Harro Ranter.
Retrieved 5 June Archived from the original on 30 October Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 23 July Stamford , Lincolnshire , England: Retrieved 22 May Gutterman, Steve 18 March Member feedback about Ukrainian Air Force: Military units and formations started in Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Sknyliv air show disaster: Aviation accidents and incidents in Ukraine Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
Member feedback about Armed Forces of Ukraine: Military of Ukraine Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Ukrainian Air Assault Forces: Military units and formations of Ukraine Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. List of Ukrainian aircraft losses during the Ukrainian crisis topic Below is list of Ukrainian aircraft losses during the Ukrainian crisis, including the pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, the Crimean crisis, and the war in Donbass.
Member feedback about List of Ukrainian aircraft losses during the Ukrainian crisis: Military history of Ukraine Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. List of active Ukrainian military aircraft topic Emblem of the Ukrainian Armed Forces The following is a list of military aircraft currently in service with the Ukrainian Armed Forces.
Member feedback about Sukhoi Su Member feedback about List of active Pakistan Air Force aircraft: Pakistan military-related lists Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Ilyushin Il Member feedback about Equipment of the Ukrainian Ground Forces: Lists of military equipment Revolvy Brain revolvybrain. Member feedback about Antonov An High-wing aircraft Revolvy Brain revolvybrain.
List of Sukhoi Su operators topic Military operators of the Su